Cardiopulmonary Outcomes and Household Air Pollution (CHAP)
Biomass fuel smoke is a leading risk factor for the burden of disease worldwide. International campaigns are promoting the widespread adoption of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in resource-limited settings. However, it is unclear if the introduction and use of LPG stoves in settings where biomass fuels are used daily reduces pollution concentration exposure, improves health outcomes, or how cultural and social barriers influence the exclusive adoption of LPG stoves.
The CHAP study is based in high altitude Puno, Peru, where many cook with wood, dung, and crop residues over a traditional stove. CHAP is a randomized, controlled field intervention trial which aims to test the impact of LPG adoption on household air pollution and cardiopulmonary health compared to traditional stove use. The main outcomes include: 1) household air pollution (particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide), 2) cardiovascular health (blood pressure, endothelial function, atherosclerosis progression, and inflammatory metabolites in urine and blood), 3) respiratory health (peak expiratory flow and forced expiratory volume), 4) quality of life, 5) level of LPG stove adoption based on LPG stove use and exhaled CO concentrations, and 6) diet and salt intake.
The study will enroll 180 non-pregnant, adult women (aged 25-64 years) over the course of one year. After completing baseline measurements, women will be randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. During the first year, women in the intervention arm will receive a free stove and fuel (10 kg tanks delivered to their household bi-weekly); control participants will continue to use their traditional stoves. During the second year, intervention participants will keep their stove but must pay for LPG; control participants will receive a free LPG stove and vouchers to cover one year of free LPG.
The CHAP trial is a collaboration between Johns Hopkins University, Washington University School of Medicine, University of Georgia, Emory University, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, and Asociación Benéfica Prisma.